The Kantian Real is the noumenal Thing beyond phenomena. – SLAVOJ ZIZEK

The Hegelian Real is the gap itself between the phenomenal and the noumenal, the gap which sustains freedom. – SLAVOJ ZIZEK

(source: “Deleuze As Hegelian”)


“Being cause of myself, doing things because they are a duty that is caused not from outside is a burden and the temptation to seek relief from this burden through perversion was Sade’s temptation.” – Andre Vantino on Zizek’s Sade – “The Sadean perversion emerges as the result of the Kantian compromise, of Kant’s avoiding the consequences of his breakthrough. Sade is the symptom of Kant,” Zizek thus concludes.

“The super-ego, the conscience at work in it, can..become harsh, cruel and inexorable against the ego. ..The categorical imperative of Kant is..a direct inheritance from the Oedipus-complex.” – S.Freud: “The superego..originated through the introjection..of the [parents as] first objects of the libidinal impulses in the id. ..The relation [to the parents] was desexualized. ..Now the super-ego has retained essential features of the introjected persons, namely their power, their severity, their tendency to watch over and to punish.” – Sigmund Freud quoted in: Kant with Sade, Lacan with Adorno: “Enjoying bodies,” the Ram and the Law.

“[Kant] makes it assume a perverse attitude, to justify..actions by saying that they were imposed upon him by unconditional duty, to hide behind the moral law and present himself as the “mere instrument” of its will.” – Cogito And The Unconscious – Alenka Zupancic – [On how the duty to always tell the truth is a perversion of duty, because duty then can be seen as justifiably imposed from outside which would open the door to making ourselves instruments of others to justify our own actions. Making oneself an instrument of a big Other is for Lacanians the definition of perversion:] “According to Kant duty is only that which the subject makes his duty. The categorical imperative is not a “catechism of pure reason,” behind which we could hide the surplus enjoyment that we find in our acts. ..Kant takes the duty to tell the truth as a..duty that passed the test of the categorical imperative and could thus be written on the list of commandments.” – A.Zupancic